Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting the elderly. Pathologically, the disease is characterized by the cytoplasmic accumulation of protein aggregates called Lewy bodies (LBs).
The immune system is designed to protect the host from infection and injury. However, when an adaptive immune response continues unchecked in the brain, the innate immune response leads to the accumulation of neurotoxins and eventual neurodegeneration. Ingress of lymphocytes and chronic activation of glial cells directly affect neurodegeneration. With this understanding, new therapies aimed at modulating the immune system’s response during Parkinson's Disease could lead to decreased neuronal loss and improved clinical outcomes for disease.
Abundant evidence implicates immune system abnormalities and central nervous system (CNS) inflammation in disease pathobiology. Harnessing inflammatory responses through targeted modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses has shown to be effective in the treatment of PD.
Innate immunity in the CNS depends primarily on the functions of glial cells (immune cells found in the central nervous system), especially astrocytes and microglia, which are important for the early control of pathogen replication, direct recruitment, and activation of the adaptive immune system required for pathogen recognition and clearance.
To this end, our laboratories have sought to transform auto-reactive adaptive immune responses into regulatory neuro-protective cells in Parkinson's disease. In this context, induction of immune responses against modified brain proteins serves to break immunological tolerance, while eliciting adaptive immunity to facilitate neuronal repair.
How does T-Cell Modulator work for Parkinson’s patients ?
T Cell Modulator® is a small polypeptide chain that acts as a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist and exhibits unique immune-modulatory properties by binding specifically to that receptor and activating it. This promotes an overall regulatory effect in the immune system by “training” it’s own cells to decrease over-production of certain chemical substances that may activate unwanted effects in other cells, or have toxic effects themselves, all the while increasing the production of chemical substances that activate cells to promote healing.
Treatment with T Cell Modulator®, induces a potent response by glial cells that promotes enhanced and balanced induction of immune responses, breaking immunological tolerance, and can lead to repair, thereby improving patients’ overall quality of life, as well as preventing further damage and allowing for recovery to some extent.