Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that results in a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks flexible (synovial) joints. It can be a disabling and painful condition, which can lead to substantial loss of functioning and mobility if not adequately treated.
Data suggest that the disease involves abnormal B cell–T cell interaction, with presentation of antigens by B cells to T cells via HLA-DR eliciting T cell help and consequent production of RF and ACPA. Inflammation is then driven either by B cell or T cell products stimulating release of TNF and other cytokines.
There is little doubt that both B and T cells are essential to the disease.
What does T-Cell Modulator do?
Immune tolerance is the process by which the body naturally does not launch an immune system attack on its own tissues. Immune tolerance therapies seeks to reset the immune system so that the body stops mistakenly attacking its own organs or cells in autoimmune disease or accepts foreign tissue in organ transplantation. A brief treatment should then reduce or eliminate the need for lifelong immunosuppression and the chances of attendant side effects, in the case of transplantation, or preserve the body's own function, at least in part, in cases such as diabetes, Lupus, Arthritis, Allergies, Hepatitis, Lyme Disease, Herpes, HIV or other autoimmune disorders.
T-Cell Modulator is able to recognize a specific receptor on the surface of dendritic cells (TLR4 receptor) activating them until maturity producing a signal that activates the TH1 and TH2 lymphocytes.
TH1 activation causes the release of substances called interleukins and activates lymphocytes NK (natural killer) cell signal releasing substances such as interferon gamma (IFN γ), which has a myriad of functions (macrophage activation, viral replication inhibitor, anti-inflammatory activity, etc.).
Activation of TH2 causes the release of more cytokines that have a large number of regulatory functions, including inhibiting the formation of cytokines, decreasing the effects of the disease.